Darfur Peace Agreement 2006

Under pressure from the international community, the mediators set deadlines for a final agreement, which were renewed several times until the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) was finally signed by the GoS Group and Minni Minni Minnawi of the SLM/A in Abuja in May 2006. To the surprise of many, Abdelwahid`s SLM/A group, like Jem, refused to sign. There have been competing interpretations, ranging from the breach of high expectations in the draft agreement to the strong pressure exerted on the parties by AU mediators and international observers. The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in January 2005 by the GoS and the Sudan Liberation People`s Movement/Army (SPLM/A) had little impact on the AU-negotiated process in Abuja. From the beginning, there was a minimum of overlap between the two processes. IGAD was a small regional group; The Sudanese peace process and the Somali transition process were its only mediation experiences and the AU did not see the need to consult it. In addition, a piecemeal regional approach has fostered GoS policy. The 2011 Darfur peace agreement, also known as the Doha Agreement, was signed in July 2011 between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement. The agreement established a compensation fund for victims of the Darfur conflict, allowed the President of Sudan to appoint a Vice-President of Darfur and a new regional authority for Darfur to oversee the region until a referendum could determine its permanent status in the Republic of Sudan. [6] The agreement also provided for a division of power at the national level: the movements that sign the agreement have the right to appoint two ministers and two four ministers of state at the federal level and to appoint 20 members to the national legislature. The movements will have the right to appoint two governors in the Darfur region.

[7] Democratic processes have been defined for the people of Darfur to choose their leaders and determine their status as a region. The signatories to the agreement received the fourth highest place in Sudan`s national unity government: the President`s senior assistant and the president of the new Regional Transitional Authority for Darfur (TDRA). TDRA was held responsible for the implementation of the Darfur peace agreement, with rebel movements effectively controlling the body. A popular referendum was to be held in July 2010 to decide whether Darfur should be a single region with a single government. Three years before the elections, the agreement gave rebel movements 12 seats in the National Assembly in Khartoum, 21 seats in each of Darfur state`s parliaments, a state governor and two deputy governors in Darfur, high positions in state ministries and key positions in local governments. The third challenge of the formal peace process is the considerable deterioration of security in Darfur in 2013, as local peace mechanisms struggle to stem inter-communal violence, which is exacerbated by state action. Fighting in North Darfur between North-Reizegat and Beni Hussein, which fought for control of gold mining in the Jebel Amir region, displaced about 100,000 people and killed hundreds of them. Sudanese border guards are involved in retaliatory attacks against Beni Hussein to control the lucrative trade, which has been booming since the discovery of commercially profitable gold in Darfur in March 2012.