It is rare that there is a consensus among almost all nations on a single subject. But with the Paris agreement, world leaders agreed that climate change was driven by human behaviour, that it was a threat to the environment and to humanity as a whole, and that global action was needed to stop it. In addition, a clear framework has been put in place for all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions and strengthen these measures over time. Here are some important reasons why the agreement is so important: the Paris Agreement, as part of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international treaty, named after the city of Paris, France, which adopted it in December 2015, which aimed to reduce the emissions of gases that contribute to global warming. The Paris agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It came into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 in November 2020. The Paris Agreement is considered « under » the UNFCCC. The UNFCCC is a relatively widespread framework agreement in international environmental law. Framework conventions define the general parameters of a regime, including objectives, fundamental principles, the general obligations of their parties and a general system of governance, and leave detailed rules and procedures to achieve the objectives of subsequent agreements. This will ensure that all parties to the Paris Agreement operate within the parameters defined by the UNFCCC. Negotiators of the agreement stated that the INDCs presented at the time of the Paris conference were insufficient and found that « the estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the planned contributions at the national level are not covered by the least expensive scenarios of 2oC, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030. » and acknowledges that « much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the global average temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius, reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius. »  [Clarification required] Ultimately, all parties recognized the need to « prevent, minimize and address losses and damages » , but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.
 InDCs become NDCs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels.